Thursday, May 13, 2010

"श्री अरविन्द का दर्शन " [22 JNKHMP]

अतिचेतन तत्व (Super - Consciousness )
पितामह की कई रचनाएँ थीं| वे दो पत्रिकाओं के सम्पादक भी थे| एक पत्रिका का नाम था 'पथिक'| उसका बोध वाक्य ही बड़ा सुन्दर था- ' पथिक, तूमि पथ हाराईयाछो !' य़ा - ' पथिक, तुम पथ भूल गये हो !' दूसरी पत्रिका का नाम था- 'पाञ्चजन्य '| 'पाञ्चजन्य' पत्रिका में उनकी बहुत सी रचनाएँ प्रकाशित हुई थीं| 
संस्कृत और बंगला भाषा में उनके कई असाधारण गद्य,पद्य प्रबन्ध आदि छपते थे| उस पत्रिका में य़ा 'पथिक' में जितनी रचनाएँ छपी थीं, उसके अतिरिक्त अन्य जगहों पर भी उनकी अनेक रचनाएँ प्रकाशित हुई थीं|तन्त्र के ऊपर भी पितामह ने अपनी व्याख्या लिखी थी| 

श्री अरविन्द का दर्शन 
वे केवल साधना ही नहीं करते थे, वेदान्त मठ से 'विश्ववाणी' नामक एक मासिक पत्रिका निकलती थी, उसमे 'तन्त्रचिन्ता' (य़ा तान्त्रिक-चिन्तन) नाम से उनके द्वारा लिखित कई प्रबन्ध धारावाहिक रूप से भी प्रकाशित हुए थे|

Swami Abhedananda (2 October 1866 – 8 September 1939) 
was a direct disciple of Sri Ramakrishna, who Swami Vivekananda sent to the West to head the Vedanta Society, New York in 1897, and spread the message of वेदान्त.He formed the 'Ramakrishna Vedanta Society' in Kolkata in 1923, which is now known as Ramakrishna Vedanta Math. In 1924, he established Ramakrishna Vedanta Math in Darjeeling in West Bengal.In 1927, he started publishing Visvavani, the monthly magazine from 'Ramakrishna Vedanta Society', which he edited from 1927 to 1938 , the magazine is published today as well. ]
 बाद में उन्हें ग्रन्थाकार रूप में प्रकाशित करने के लिये कई फरमा छाप भी लिये गये थे, किन्तु अर्थ के आभाव में पूरा ग्रन्थ बन कर प्रकाशित नहीं हो सका था| विवेकानन्द एवं श्रीअरविन्द के ऊपर उनकी रचना- ' The Two Towers of the Orient ' भी अप्रकाशित रह गयी है| उनके द्वारा लिखित 'Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard' का बंगला अनुवाद, पुस्तकाकार में प्रकाशित हुआ है| शेक्सपीयर की कुछ रचनाओं का अनुवाद भी किये थे, उसी प्रकार की एक कविता की केवल एक-दो पंक्तियाँ याद पड़तीं हैं, जैसे- 
" पितामता गुरु, शिक्षादाता गुरु -
त्रिदेव माथार मणि,
अतिथिउ जिनी 
साधु-संन्यासिनी, नारायण- नारायणी !! "
इस तरह की अत्यन्त सुन्दर-सुन्दर असंख्य कवितायेँ उन्होंने लिखी थीं| कविता, गद्य की सभी रचनाये बहुत सुन्दर थीं|
कॉलेज स्ट्रीट मोड़ के निकट, कृष्णदास पाल की मूर्ति के पास, पूर्व दिशा में जाने वाली गली में जो तीन-तल्ला मकान है- वह मेरे पिताजी की एक बुआजी (पीसी माँ ) का है|किसी समय में यह मकान कांग्रेसी नेताओं का अड्डा था! उस भवन में मोतीलाल नेहरु, अरविन्द जैसे नेता लोग इकट्ठा होते थे| अरविन्द को बंगला में लिखना-पढना उतनी अच्छी तरह से नहीं आता था| 
[Sri Aurobindo Ghosh was born on 15th August 1872,to an anglicized father Dr Krishnan Ghosh. He wanted his children to be 
 schooled in English, therefore at the age of 7 Aurobindo was sent to study in England. Aurobindo studied first at St Paul’s, London and then at Kings College Cambridge.

Life in England was often tough for Aurobindo; resources were meager and for many years he had to often survive on a frugal diet. However he proved to be a scholar of great intellect and capacity. He mastered the classics and English poetry (later he wrote extensively on the English poets). The famous don Oscar Browning declared Aurobindo one of the greatest scholars he had seen.


It was at Cambridge university that Aurobindo first became aware of the plight of his country, at the time under the rule of the British Empire. Aurobindo became inspired to join a society committed to overthrowing British rule.

This period was an important landmark in Aurobindo’s life. With his new political perspective he turned down an opportunity to join the British civil service. He had passed all his exams but failed to turn up for the obligatory horse riding test. Therefore at the age of 21 he returned to India increasingly committed to working for Indian independence.]

उनके नाम से क्रांतिकारियों द्वारा लिखे गये पत्रों को केवल  मेरे ' बड़ दादू '(पितामह के अग्रज -यतीश चन्द्र ) ही खोल कर देखते थे और अरविन्द के उत्तर को लिख देते थे| हैरीसन रोड में इसके अतिरिक्त शायद किसी अन्य बंगाली का घर नहीं है
इस जगह यह भी स्मरण होता है कि, ' मुरारी पूकूर काण्ड ' में जो अंग्रेज न्यायधीश थे, वे तथा अरविन्द दोनों, एक ही साथ आई-सी-एस की परीक्षा में बैठे थे | 

Sri Aurobindo the Revolutionary




The Alipore Bomb Case (or the Alipore Bomb Conspiracy Case or the Alipore Bomb Trial) became one of the most important court trials in the history of India's Freedom Movement.

When Bengal was partitioned, it sparked off an outburst of public anger against the British. This widespread anger led to civil unrest and a nationalist campaign was carried out by a group of Revolutionaries, led by Aurobindo Ghosh, Rasbihari Bose and Bagha Jatin and organized into groups like 'Jugantar'.


To crush this public uprising, the British cracked down hard on the activists and the conflict came to a head on April 30, 1908 when Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki attempted to kill Magistrate Kingsford at Muzaffarpur. 


He was known to be a cruel judge, with a reputation for handing down particularly harsh sentences against the nationalists. However, the bomb thrown at his horse carriage missed its target and instead landed in a carriage carrying two British women, killing them.


The local police immediately raided Sri Aurobindo's property at Maniktolla Garden in Muraripukur of Calcutta where revolutionaries were trained by his organisation and along with many Revolutionary Activists, Sri Aurobindo was himself arrested on charges of planning and overseeing the attack and for some time was imprisoned in solitary confinement in Alipore Jail.

After an intense manhunt, Khudiram Bose was arrested though Prafulla Chaki shot himself rather than fall into the hands of the police.
The case came up before the Alipore Sessions Court and the Judge Mr Beachcroft, ICS, who interestingly enough had been a classmate of Sri Aurobindo at Cambridge.

While the trial went on, a series of dramatic events took place. One of the accused turned approvar. But he was shot dead inside the Jail in broad day light. The Officer who caught Profulla Chaki was killed. Public Prosecutor Biswas, the able Assistant of Barrister Norton who was Counsel for the Crown, was shot at on the stairs of the Court.

Surprisingly when all these developments were taking place, Sri Aurobindo who was in his solitary cell, was approaching the turning point in his life. He spent most of his time in reading the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads and in intensive Meditation and practice of Yoga. He was constantly hearing the voice of Vivekananda speaking to him for a fortnight in the Jail in his solitary Meditation and felt his immediate presence.

Although he had taken up Yoga since 1904, it was now that the spiritual life and realisation which had continuously been increasing in intensity and magnitude, entirely claimed his whole being. 

Recalling this spiritual experience, Sri Aurobindo later said that while in Jail he saw the convicts, jailers, policemen, the prison bars, the trees, the judge, the lawyers as different forms of Vishnu in the spiritual experience of Vasudeva. This meteoric spiritual experience in jail culminated in his attaining the mystic experience of the all-pervading Supreme Reality.


Sri Aurobindo's defence was taken up by a brilliant rising young Lawyer named Chittaranjan Das (1870-1925), one of Sri Aurobindo's Nationalist Collaborators, who put aside his large practice and devoted himself for months to the defence of Sri Aurobindo. Chittaranjan Das's speech for the defence of Sri Aurobindo was spread over 8 days and was a masterpiece of forensic eloquence and juridical wisdom.

On April 13, 1909, the two Assessors nominated by the Sessions Court returned a unanimous verdict of 'Not Guilty' and about a month later, District and Sessions Judge Mr. Beachcroft accepted the verdict and honourably acquitted Sri Aurobindo.

It was a moment of great triumph not only for Sri Aurobindo but also for Chittaranjan Das. Sri Aurobindo, however, was brilliantly defended by the young lawyer Deshbandu Chittaranjan Das who concluded his defence in the following immortal words:

'My appeal to you is this, that long after the controversy will be hushed in silence, long after this turmoil, the agitation will have ceased, long after he is dead and gone, he will be looked upon as the poet of patriotism, as the prophet of nationalism and the lover of humanity. 

Long after he is dead and gone, his words will be echoed and re-echoed, not only in India but across distant seas and lands. Therefore, I say that the man in his position is not only standing before the bar of this Court, but before the bar of the High Court of History.'
By: V Sundaram vsundaram@newstodaynet.com]
उस समय कलकत्ता भारत की राजधानी थी, इसीलिये आई-सी-एस की परीक्षा में बंगला की परीक्षा भी देनी पड़ती थी| इस न्यायधीश ने आई-सी-एस में बंगला में प्रथम स्थान प्राप्त किया था, और अरविन्द अंग्रेजी में प्रथम स्थान प्राप्त किये थे! जब पुलिस  उनके घर की तलाशी लेने पहुंची तो उनको कोई भी निषिद्ध वस्तु प्राप्त नहीं हुई|किसी पुलिस आफिसर को एक पुडिया मिला, उसने अरविन्द से पूछा- ' क्या यह कोई बिस्फोटक पदार्थ है? ' अरविन्द ने उत्तर दिया- " ऐसा कहा जा सकता है,- क्योंकि इसमें दक्षिणेश्वर की थोड़ी मिट्टी है! "  उस मामले में उनको जेल की सजा सुनाई गयी थी| 
अरविन्द ने स्वयं यह कहा था कि, उनको जिस सेल में बन्द करके रखा गया था, उसी सेल में हठात एक दिन (शरीर त्याग करने के बाद भी ?) स्वामी विवेकानन्द आविर्भूत हो गये थे !और श्री अरविन्द को मन की ' अतिचेतन-अवस्था '(Super-Consciousness) के विषय में बहुत विस्तारपूर्वक  समझाए! क्रमागत २ सप्ताह तक यह सब चलता रहा, क्योंकि यह विषय उतना सहज बोध-गम्य नहीं था| श्री अरविन्द का दर्शन इसी तात्विक-ज्ञान, इसी अतिचेतन तत्व (Super - Consciousness ) के ऊपर आधारित है! 
 जो लोग नूतन हैं, जो लोग नवीन हैं, जो लोग अभी युवा हैं, उनको यह सब विचार प्राप्त करना आवश्यक है, इन विचारों को समझा कर उनके जीवन का निर्माण करना आवश्यक है| उनको यह बतलाना आवश्यक है कि उनमे से प्रत्येक के भीतर असीम सम्भावनायें निहित हैं, प्रत्येक का जीवन कितना महान हो सकता है, प्रत्येक अपने इसी जीवन में कितना ऊँचा उठ सकते हैं, जिसकी कोई सीमा नहीं -Sky is the Limit!   
   
[It was also in prison that Sri Aurobindo was visited by the soul of Swami Vivekananda, who instructed Sri Aurobindo about the workings of the " Super-Consciousness "which was above the mind.

Sri Aurobindo also became aware of a divine inner guidance, that was never to leave him. From this divine source he was given an Adesh “inner command” that henceforth he should not worry about politics. India would gain her independence in due course but this would be achieved by others. 

After gaining a dramatic acquittal Sri Aurobindo was released, but was still pursued by the British, who considered him “the most dangerous man we have to reckon with…” 
It was around this time that he again came into contact with Sister Nivedita, a disciple of Swami Vivekananda and fellow revolutionary. She warned Sri Aurobindo of the dangers he was in. After a while Sri Aurobindo followed another “Adesh” to move to the French province of Pondicherry.
After a short illness Sri Aurobindo entered his mahasamadhi on 5th December 1950.
 Article Copyright: Richard Pettinger 13/10/2005]

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