Thursday, July 1, 2010

[29] " प्रथम अखिल भारत संगीत सम्मेलन १९१६ "

पितामह की संगीत पर अच्छी पकड़ थी, गायन के क्षेत्र में तो विशेष पारदर्शी थे. जिस प्रकार थियेटर के क्षेत्र में अच्छे जानकर थे उसी प्रकार गायन की अभी अच्छी जानकारी थी.वे अपनी माताजी को अपना गायन सुनाया करते थे. किन्तु गायन के विषय में उनकी पहुँच कहाँ तक थी, इसका पता मुझे भी नहीं था. किन्तु बाद में, कुछ बड़ा होने पर ज्ञात हुआ कि वर्ष १९१६ में पण्डित भातखण्डे (पण्डित विष्णु नारायण भातखण्डे) ने भारतवर्ष में प्रथम बार All India Music Conference  का जो आयोजन बड़ौदा में करवाया था.
 उस आयोजन का सारा खर्च और सम्पूर्ण व्यवस्था बड़ौदा के तत्कालीन ' गायकवाड़ ' महाराज ने के द्वारा उठाया गया था.उस कॉन्फ्रेंस में पूरे बंगाल से केवल तीन लोगों को ही आमंत्रित किया गया था. एक थे- रवीन्द्रनाथ ठाकुर, दूसरे थे- गोपेश्वर बन्दोपध्याय के पिता- बाँकुड़ा के  कृष्णधन बन्दोपध्याय जो बंगदेशीय- संगीत मार्ग के विख्यात व्यक्ति थे.और तीसरे व्यक्ति थे मेरे पितामह- आचार्य शिरीष चन्द्र मुखोपाध्याय. उस युग का, ( अंग्रेजों के समय का ) प्रथम अखिल भारत संगीत सम्मेलन (1st All India Music conference ) था, जिसमे मेरे पितामह को भी निमन्त्रण पत्र भेजा गया था. 

 File:Bhatkhande.jpg
Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande 
(August 10, 1860 – September 19, 1936) 

कृष्णघन बन्दोपध्याय द्वारा लिखित एक पुस्तक हमलोगों के घर में था, जिसे मैंने पढ़ा भी है.किन्तु उस संगीत-सम्मेलन के होने से पहले ही किसी कारणवश कृष्णघनबाबू अस्वस्थ हो गये थे य़ा शायद उनका  शरीरान्त भी हो गया था. इसीलिये वे जा नहीं सके.रवीन्द्रनाथ ठाकुर नहीं गये, क्यों नहीं गये यह मुझे ज्ञात नहीं है. इसलिए बंगलादेश (अविभाजित बंगाल प्रान्त) से निमंत्रित सदस्य के रूप में केवल एक व्यक्ति- शिरीषचन्द्र मुखोपाध्याय ही उस सम्मेलन में भाग ले सके थे.
उस युग का संगीत-सम्मेलन का अर्थ केवल गाने-बजाने का जलसा ही नहीं समझना चाहिये. उस सम्मलेन में संगीत के विभिन्न theoretical पोर्सन के ऊपर व्याख्यान देने के लिये अलग-अलग व्यक्तियों के ऊपर जम्मेदारी सौंपी गयी थी. एवं उस विषय पर अपना वक्तव्य प्रस्तुत करने के बाद उसे किसी वाद्य-यंत्र य़ा कन्ठ-संगीत के माध्यम से संगीत में कार्यरूप से बजा कर य़ा गा कर दिखाना पड़ता था. 
यही उस म्यूजिक कॉन्फ्रेंस की रीति थी. पितामह ने संगीत की भारतीय-पद्धति के बाइस श्रुतियों के ऊपर एक thesis (प्रबन्ध ) प्रस्तुत किया था; एवं दक्षिण भारत की एक महिला वीणा-वादिनी ने संगीत की उन श्रुतियों को वाद्य-यन्त्र पर बजा कर सुनाया था. उनके इस thesis ने उस सम्मेलन में प्रचूर प्रसंशा प्राप्त की थी.  


उस सम्मेलन का एक चित्र अब भी खड़दह के घर में है.मैंने उस thesis को बहुत कम उम्र में ही पढ़ा था, अभी वह सब नष्ट हो चुका है.
==============             
[Chaturpandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande (1860-1936) was an Indian musicologist who wrote the first modern treatise on (North Indian) Hindustani Classical Music, an art which had been propagated earlier for a few centuries mostly through oral traditions. During those earlier times, the art had undergone several changes, rendering the raga grammar documented in scant old texts outdated.Ragas used to be classified into Raga (male), Ragini (female), and Putra (children). Bhatkhande reclassified them into the currently used 'Thaat system'.
He noted that several ragas did not conform to their description in ancient Sanskrit texts. He explained the ragas in an easy-to-understand language and composed several bandishes which explained the grammar of the ragas. He borrowed the idea of lakshan geet from the Carnatic music scholar Venkatamakhi Chaturpandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande (1860-1936) is considered by many to be the father of modern Hindustani music. A lawyer by profession, Pandit Bhatkhande was the most important Hindustani musicologist of the 20th century.
He researched prevalent practices in various gharanas in early 20th century north India. This followed his trip to south Indian musical centers where he learnt about the work of Venkatmukhi and the classification of Raagas into 72 Melas. 
His treatise on Hindustani music was presented in 4 volumes of his Marathi book Hindustani Sangeetha Padhathi between 1909 - 1932. He described hundred and eighty ragas and classified them into ten basic thaats, or musical scales or frameworks -Bilawal, Kalyan, Khamaj, Bhairav, Poorvi, Marwa, Kafi, Asavari, Bhairavi and Todi. He also devised musical notation that could be used to write music. 
That was perhaps the first attempt at writing music in India ... where for thousands of years music had been orally transmitted. He also collected more than two thousand compositions from different gharanas and brought them out into the public sphere. He helped starting a college of music, Sangeeta Maha Vidyalaya in Baroda using his system of music teaching.
He trained music teachers. He wrote graded text- books on music. They are known as Kramic Putstaka Malika. With the help of the Maharaja of Baroda, Bhatkhande convened in 1916 the first All-India Music Conference in Baroda, a first of its kind.
Legends
TANSEN Tansen is considered to be one of the greatest musicians that ever lived. He was the court musician of the famous Mogul Emperor Akbar (16th century). He was so highly valued in the court that he was called one of the “Nine Jewels” in his court (navarathna).
 The details of Tansen’s life are incomplete. He was born in a Hindu community and had his musical training under the great Swami Haridas. 
He then went to the court of the Raja Ram Baghela, a great patron of the arts. From there he migrated to the court of Akbar.
 It is said that Tansen could work miracles with his singing. This is called nada siddha in Sanskrit.He is supposed to have acquired such supernatural abilities through the association with the saintly Swami Haridas.
It is said that on occasion he could create rain by singing the monsoon rag Megh Malhar. It is also said that he could create fire by singing ragDipak.Many rag are ascribed to Tansen. Such rag as Mian ki Malhar, Mian ki Todi and Darbari Kanada are the most famous. Today his followers are refered to as “Senia Gharana

Pt V N BHATKHANDE (1860-1936)
Chaturpandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande is considered by many to be the father of modern Hindustani music. He was the most important Hindustani musicologist and composer of the 20th century, a true crusader and a renaisance man.
Born into a cultured Maharastrian family in Balukeshwar, Bombay on December 31st, 1860, Bhatkhande acquired his sweet voice and initial training from his mother. 

He learnt the flute, Sitar and vocal music from some very eminent gurus like Jairajgir, Raojibua Belbagkar, Ali Husain Khan, Vilayat Hussain Khan and others.
Along with his academic studies, he devoted nearly 15 years to the study of all the available ancient music-treatises in Sanskrit, Telugu, Bengali, Gujarati, Urdu, German, Greek and English with the help of scholars and interpreters. He also became proficient in Sanskrit.
For a brief period after his LLB he served as a successful lawyer at the Karachi High Court.
Death of his wife and daughter turned him away from the wordly life to a life devoted to music. His sole objective, as he wrote, “has been to place before my educated, music-loving brothers and sisters, the present condition of the Art”.
He started his musical quest by first touring every important music center of India talking to all the great musicians and scholars of the day, going through all the books and manuscripts he could find in various libraries. 
He had to confront social, intellectual, and finally, professional prejudices. These took shape as positive obstacles, definite active resistance. 

By his infinite patience, presuasive ways, and utter sincerity of purpose, Bhatkhande was gradually able to break down the opposition and suspicion of some of the great ustads of the day.
Once he had collected enormous amount of information, Bhatkhande set about sifting though it all and publishing all the knowledge he had gained. Then followed a period of prolific publications – in Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi and English such as: 
Abhinavaragamanjari, Abhinavatalamanjari, Lakshya Sangeetam, the Hindustani Sangeet Paddhati, the Kramik series in 6 volumes, the Swara-malika and Geet Malika series, Grantha sangeetam, Bhavi Sangeetam, A Short Historical Survey of Music, Philosophy of Music, and so on using his pen names, Vushnu Sharma or ChaturPandit
In Kramik series, he published more than 2000 of traditional Dhrupads, Dhamars, Khayals, Sadras, Taraanas, Chaturangs and Thumris he had collected from all the gharana-s. The volumes also had about 250 of his own compositions, mostly khayals and Lakshna Geeth-s using the pen-name Chatura. 
He also published several ancient music-granthas whose manuscripts he had salvaged during his country-wide tours.
Most important of his works is his treatise on Hindustani music, presented in 4 volumes of his Marathi book Hindustani Sangeetha Padhathi between 1909 – 1932. 
He described hundred and eighty ragas and classified them into ten basic thaats, or musical scales or frameworks -Bilawal, Kalyan, Khamaj, Bhairav, Poorvi, Marwa, Kafi, Asavari, Bhairavi and Todi. He also devised musical notation that could be used to write music. That was perhaps the first attempt at writing music in India … where for thousands of years music had been orally transmitted.
He helped to start the first college of music, Sangeeta Maha Vidyalaya in Baroda using his system of music teaching. He trained music teachers. He wrote graded text- books on music. They are known as Kramic Putstaka Malika.

With the help of the Maharaja of Baroda, .Bhatkhande convened in 1916 the first All-India Music Conference in Baroda, a first of its kind
In the 5th All-India Music Conference in 1925 it was decided to open a College of Music at Lucknow and the following year the Marris College of Hindustani Music was established in the name of Governor of the province. 

This has been renamed as Bhtakhande University on the centenery year of his birth. Bhatkhande used to supervise the work of this college in its early years.
His efforts continued till he became bedridden and finally passed away in 1933. His dedicated disciples, particularly Pt S N Ratanjankar, continued the great work of Bhatkhande. Govt of India honoured Bhatkhande with a release of a stamp in his name.}

 THE DAGAR HERITAGE
by Joep Bor and Philippe Bruguiere
The first time Mohinuddin and Aminuddin Dagar came to Europe for a concert tour in the mid-sixties, dhrupad was perhaps at its lowest ebb in India. The appreciative response of Western audiences was beyond expectation, and their performances in Venice, Berlin and Paris are still engraved in the memories of those present. 
The Dagar Brothers, as they are known, belonged to a prestigious family of dhrupad singers whose founder was Baba Gopal Das, a Hindu who is said to have converted to Islam at the time of Emperor Muhammad Shah. His younger son Behram Khan established himself in Jaipur, where he became a court musician of great repute. He taught his brother's grandsons Allabande and Zakiruddin Khan who used to sing together, quickly asserting themselves as the foremost dhrupad vocalists of their time.
Zakiruddin, an erudite musician, was offered the privileged rank of first court musician in Udaipur, whereas his brother was employed at Alwar court. 
A report from the first All India Music Conference held in Baroda in 1916 praises the two brothers' vocal duet. Musicologist Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande was deeply impressed by Zakiruddin's knowledge, and so was the renowned binkar Bande Ali Khan, who gave the brothers his two daughters in marriage.
One of the four sons of Allabande, Nasiruddin Khan was a highly sensitive and imaginative artist. His mastery of alap captivated audiences, but unfortunately he died in the prime of his career in Indore, and left a void in the field of dhrupad. He was survived by four sons, later known as the elder (Mohinuddin and Aminuddin) and the younger (Zahiruddin and Faiyazuddin) Dagar brothers. Fahimuddin Dagar is the son of Rahimuddin Khan Dagar, a younger brother of Nasiruddin.
Both were also well-versed in the Sanskrit and Persian languages. Rahimuddin added the suffix Dagar to his name, and this new patronymic was then adopted by the whole family.

No comments: